Some Collected Studies on Orange Juice

The following are studies performed on orange juice and oranges. Despite the claims of some nutritionists lately, orange juice is clearly not as bad as soda despite both being high in sugar. I left appropriate quotes or findings underneath the bolded studies.

Orange juice appears to have a number of interesting benefits, though it may have adverse effects on body fat and tooth enamel.

http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/72/5/1095.full

“Consumption of 750 mL but not of 250 or 500 mL orange juice daily increased HDL-cholesterol concentrations by 21% (P < 0.001), triacylglycerol concentrations by 30% (from 1.56 ± 0.72 to 2.03 ± 0.91 mmol/L; P < 0.02), and folate concentrations by 18% (P < 0.01); decreased the LDL-HDL cholesterol ratio by 16% (P < 0.005); and did not affect homocyst(e)ine concentrations. Plasma vitamin C concentrations increased significantly during each dietary period (2.1, 3.1, and 3.8 times, respectively)”

Blood lipids in 750 mL orange juice group:

Total cholesterol before: 244
HDL before: 38.6
Triglycerides before: 141

Total cholesterol:HDL ratio before: 6.3
Triglycerides:HDL ratio before: 3.65

Total Cholesterol after: 251
HDL after: 46.4
Triglycerides after: 177

Total cholesterol:HDL ratio after: 5.4
Triglycerides:HDL ratio after: 3.8

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/S15327914NC3602_12

“Colon cancer was initiated by injecting AOM (15 mg/kg body wt) at 22 and 29 days of age. One week after the second AOM injection, orange juice replaced drinking water for the experimental group (n = 30). The rats were killed 28 weeks later, and tumors were removed for histological analysis. Feeding orange juice reduced tumor incidence by 22% (p < 0.05)”

http://mutage.oxfordjournals.org/content/20/4/279.short

“Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and cyclophosphamide (CP) are alkylating agents that differ in their mode of action…To evaluate if orange juice could reduce DNA damage induced by these alkylating agents, mice were treated orally (by gavage) with MMS and CP, prior to and after treatment with orange juice…Under these experimental conditions, orange juice reduced the extent of DNA damage caused by both mutagens. For MMS, the antigenotoxic effect of the orange juice was both protective (orange juice pre-treatment) and reparative (orange juice post-treatment); for CP, the effect was reparative only”

http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/9781306

“Double strength orange juice given to the rats in place of drinking water inhibited mammary tumorigenesis induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats by DMBA more effectively than double strength grapefruit juice”

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf0485234

“Sixteen healthy female volunteers were enrolled in a crossover study and were given 600 mL/day of blood orange juice or a diet without juice for 21 days….lymphocyte DNA resistance to oxidative stress was improved whereas no effect was observed on the other markers that we analyzed”

http://www.jbc.org/content/66/2/829.short

Drinking orange juice improved calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and nitrogen balance in two female children. It also brought about weight gain.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0300571297000250

“Ten subjects, each consuming 11 of orange juice per day for 15 days, showed significantly more erosion on the enamel specimens than the same subjects consuming 11 of water per day over the same time period, measurements undertaken with surfometry”

http://cjasn.asnjournals.org/content/1/6/1269.short

“Consumption of orange juice was associated with lower calculated calcium oxalate supersaturation and lower calculated undissociated uric acid. This short-term study suggests that orange juice consumption could result in biochemical modification of stone risk factors”

http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/91/4/940.short

“The combination of glucose or water and the HFHC meal induced oxidative and inflammatory stress and an increase in TLR expression and plasma endotoxin concentrations. In contrast, orange juice intake with the HFHC meal prevented meal-induced oxidative and inflammatory stress, including the increase in endotoxin and TLR expression”

http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/95/5/1089.abstract

“Endothelial function, which was measured as flow-mediated dilation, significantly improved and was normalized (5.7% compared with 7.9%; P < 0.005) after 1 wk of red orange juice consumption. Similarly, concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, IL-6, and TNF-α significantly decreased (P < 0.001)”

http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/33/5/991.short

“Indexes of inflammation including nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) binding, and the expression of SOCS3, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL)-1β in MNCs, increased significantly after glucose and cream intake, but TLR-4 expression and plasma LPS concentrations increased only after cream intake. The intake of orange juice or water did not induce any change in any of the indexes measured”

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278691505002590

“Both metal compounds were genotoxic for eukaryotic cells after 24 h treatment at the doses used. Significant damage repair was observed after 48 h of treatment with the same compounds. Orange juice had a modulating effect on the action of metallic sulfates. In the case of iron treatment, the presence of the orange juice had a preventive, but not restorative, effect. On the other hand, in the case of copper treatment, the effects were both preventive and restorative”

http://www.jacn.org/content/22/6/519.short

Orange juice and vitamin C lower TBARS levels.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002822304017018

Orange juice lowers TBARS, older orange juice loses vitamin C and starts to increase TBARS.

http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/34/2/211.full.pdf+html

Whole oranges are more satiating than orange juice.

http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/78/3/454.short

“Drinking orange juice (500 mL/d) increases plasma concentrations of vitamin C and reduces concentrations of 8-epi-PGF2α in humans. These effects were significantly more pronounced in smokers”

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf050054y

“Seven healthy females and six males consumed daily 256 mg of vitamin C, 271 mg of flavanones (mainly as glycosides), 6 mg of carotenoids (mainly xanthophylls and cryptoxanthins), and 0.16 mg of folate by incorporation of daily three times 236 mL of not from concentrate orange juice (OJ) into their habitual diet. At the end of 3 weeks, mean vitamin C, folate, carotenoid, and flavanone plasma concentrations increased significantly relative to baseline by 59% (p < 0.001), 46% (p = 0.018), and 22% (p < 0.001), and 8-fold (p = 0.045), respectively. Flavanones were excreted in urine 9-fold more at the end of the intervention (p = 0.01) but returned to baseline 2 days after study completion. After the 3 week intervention, plasma concentrations of vitamins A and E did not change. 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine in white blood cells declined by 16% (p = 0.38; n = 11), and in individuals with high baseline concentrations by 29% (p = 0.36; n = 7), respectively. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)−/high-density lipoprotein (HDL)−cholesterol ratios decreased but cholesterol (HDL, LDL, total) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance plasma concentrations did not change significantly”

http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/30/6/1406.short

“There was a significant increase in ROS generation by mononuclear cells (by 130 ± 18%, P < 0.001), polymorph nuclear cells (by 95 ± 22%, P < 0.01), and in NF-κB binding in mononuclear cells by 82 ± 16% (P < 0.01) over the baseline after 2 h of glucose intake. These changes were absent following fructose, orange juice, or water intake. There was significantly lower ROS generation and NF-κB binding following orange juice, fructose, and water compared with glucose (P < 0.001 for all)”

http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/91/4/940.abstract

“The combination of glucose or water and the HFHC meal induced oxidative and inflammatory stress and an increase in TLR expression and plasma endotoxin concentrations. In contrast, orange juice intake with the HFHC meal prevented meal-induced oxidative and inflammatory stress, including the increase in endotoxin and TLR expression”

http://www.nrjournal.com/article/S0271-5317(10)00181-8/abstract

“Orange juice consumption decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (160 ± 17 to 141 ± 26 mg/dL, P < .01) in the HCH (hypercholesterolemic) group but not in the NC (normolipidemic) group”

http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/93/1/73.short

“In healthy, middle-aged, moderately overweight men, orange juice decreases (diastolic blood pressure) when regularly consumed and postprandially increases endothelium-dependent microvascular reactivity”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7124761

In hypertensive smokers, drinking coffee causes a rise in blood pressure, drinking orange juice doesn’t.

http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/09637480903514041

“The effect of the consumption of a pear, an apple and 200 ml orange juice, during 26 days, on total plasma antioxidant capacity (TAC) and lipid profile of chronic smokers and non-smoking healthy adults was analyzed. Fruit consumption increased TAC in non-smokers, but not in smokers. In non-smokers, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol increased significantly; while in smokers, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol decreased”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17349075

“The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of the intake of a single portion of blood orange juice (BOJ, 300 ml, providing 150 mg vitamin C) on mononuclear blood cell (MNBC) DNA damage, compared with a drink supplemented with the same amount of vitamin C (C-drink) or sugars (S-drink)…DNA damage significantly decreased 3 h after BOJ intake (about 18 %; P < 0.01) and remained constant at 24 h (about 16 %; P < 0.01). No effect of the C-drink and S-drink was observed. In conclusion, the intake of a single portion of BOJ provided an early protection of MNBC against oxidative DNA damage; however, the protective effect of BOJ was not explained by vitamin C alone, thus other phytochemicals could be involved”

http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/32/12/2484.short

“The bioavailability of iron in the different breakfast meals varied markedly. There was almost a 6-fold idfference in absorption (0.07 to 0.40 mg) despite of the fact that the iron content only varied from 2.8 to 4.2 mg. The most marked effect was seen with tea which reduced the absorption to less than half and with orange juice which increased the absorption two and a half times”

http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/3861972

“Urinary and faecal excretions of selenium were measured for five days following a dose of 1 mg Se as sodium selenite in ten young women after an overnight fast. The selenite was taken two hours before a meal or mixed with 1 g ascorbic acid; or with a continental type breakfast providing 4.5-5.6 micrograms Se and 0.6-0.8 mg Cu, with or without 200 ml orange juice (60 mg ascorbic acid). The light meal appeared to have little effect on selenite-Se absorption, and orange juice appeared even to assist it”

http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/2095316

“The amount of calcium released from the enamel into solution was determined with the use of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed the following degree of enamel demineralization: Pepsi Cola = orange juice greater than apple juice greater than Diet Pepsi Cola”

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0300571298000694

“Water, the experimental blackcurrant juice drink and orange juice produced 0.19, 0.41 and 2.54 μm loss of enamel respectively in situ and 0.0, 5.2 and 22.18 μm loss of enamel respectively in vitro. All differences between pairs of drinks in situ and in vitro were statistically significant”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18507878

“We performed a randomised 2 x 2 factorial, crossover trial to determine the effect of orange and blackcurrant juice (500 ml/d) and vitamin E (15 mg RRR-alpha-tocopherol/d) supplementation on markers of inflammation and endothelial activation in forty-eight patients with peripheral arterial disease…Analysis of main effects showed that juice decreased C-reactive protein (CRP) by 11% and fibrinogen by 3% while the reference drink increased CRP by 13% and fibrinogen by 2% (P

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21372706

“Over the course of 2 bags of cells infused, the OI group reported significantly greater relief with the intervention (P = .032). Among participants less than 90 kg, OI group reported significantly lower symptom intensity (P = .012)…Oranges offer a simple, noninvasive intervention for relieving symptoms associated with DMSO preservative during autologous HPC infusion”

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